NASA officially confirmed on Tuesday (15) that we are in a new solar cycle. The suspicion was already raised by scientists and astronomers, and now, with more detailed observations, it is possible to say that we have entered a new period of 11 years, the length of the star cycle.Normally, the phenomenon cannot be seen with the naked eye directly from Earth, but it can be seen in the failure of satellite communications or in the slight increase in the appearance of auroras on our planet.What made it possible to identify the new interval was the increase of dark spots in the Sun, an action monitored for eight months by the American space agency and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Such stains and cycles have been observed by researchers since the 18th century, which results in data for 24 complete cycles. Therefore, it is already known that, when more sunspots appear on the star, we are entering a new cycle, even if it can only be perceived after its beginning. According to the National Science Foundation (NSF) in the United States, December 2019 marked the beginning of the 25th period.”We keep a detailed record of the few tiny sunspots that mark the beginning and rise of the new cycle,” explained Frédéric Clette, director of the World Data Center’s Sunspot and Long-Term Observations Index. “These are the tiny harbingers of future giant solar fireworks. It is only by tracking the general trend over many months that we can determine the tipping point between two cycles,” he added.What really happens is that any change in the behavior of the Sun can be associated with changing the location of its magnetic fields. These fields are driven by currents of plasma flowing from within them very deeply. The fact is that it is not yet known what pulls these chains. Reasons are suspected, but no firm conclusion.”As we emerge from the solar minimum and approach the maximum of cycle 25, it is important to remember that solar activity never stops; it changes shape as the pendulum swings,” said NASA solar scientist Lika Guhathakurta.It is also worth noting that the periodicity of changes in stars is more common than imagined. The intervals can be observed almost exactly from time to time.22 year cycle
The 11-year cycle, which indicates the intensity and timing of the Sun’s activity, is actually part of an even larger cycle of 22 years. In this longer interval, there is a complete inversion of the star’s polarity, so, every 11 years, the poles change places with each other, returning to the position at the end in the next repetition.Although the smaller cycle has now been discovered, in 2020, another five years must be needed for us to enter a more aggressive phase of the Sun. It is likely, even, that this cycle is calm, since the 24th was also relatively quiet. “Just because it is a below average solar cycle does not mean that there is no risk of extreme space weather,” said Doug Biesecker, solar physicist at the NOAA Space Weather Forecast Center in Colorado, and a study participant.In addition, the team of scientists expects this cycle to reach its peak in 2025.? It is difficult to define a specific date, but we predict that in the middle of 2025 will be when we will have the largest number of sunspots in this cycle. We expect there to be a maximum of 115 sunspots, which is very close to what we saw during the previous cycle, which reached a maximum of 120 sunspots. This is what tells me that this could be the beginning of a return to stronger solar cycles and an ever smaller cycle break than we have seen in the last few decades ?, said Gordon Petrie, of the NSF National Solar Observatory.It is worth mentioning that monitoring these periods can help humans to predict the space climate more accurately, which most of the time is dictated by explosions of charged plasma and radiation that can aggressively crash into space. Astronauts and space engineers who perform satellite management also need this information to carry out I work with complete security.